Free Legionella Articles

Articles on Legionella and Other Waterborne Pathogens in Building Water Systems

September 2016: Vaccaro L, Izquierdo F, Magnet A, et al. First Case of Legionnaires Disease Caused by Legionella anisa in Spain and the Limitations on the Diagnosis of Legionella non-pneumophila Infections. PLOS ONE 11(9): e0162934. The study indicated that Legionella infections caused by strains other than Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 (Lp1) may be significantly under-reported where urinary antigen is the sole diagnostic test. Out of 210 urine samples tested, PCR identified Legionella in 15 samples but the urinary antigen test was positive for only 4 samples. PCR identified Legionella species and serogroups in addition to Lp1.

March 2024: Kunz J, Lawinger H, Miko S, et al. Surveillance of Waterborne Disease Outbreaks Associated with Drinking Water– United States, 2015-2020. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR) 73(1), Of 214 outbreaks associated with drinking water 2015–2020, Legionella caused caused 97% of the hospitalizations and 98% of all deaths.

October 2023: Sinkevitch J, Paoline J, Smee A, et al. Notes from the Field: Mycobacterium abscessus Outbreak Related to Contaminated Water Among Ventilator-Dependent Residents of a Pediatric Facility- Pennsylvania, 2022. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR) 72(42); 1151-1152. Examination of a pediatric facility determines poor water quality and insufficient infection control practices likely caused Mycobacterium abscessus outbreak.

October 2023: Lipner E, French J, Mercaldo R. 2023. The risk of pulmonary NTM infections and water-quality constituents among persons with cystic fibrosis in the United States, 2010–2019. Environmental Epidemiology 7(5):p e266, October. Shows the odds of nontuberculous mycobacterial (NTM) infections in cystic fibrosis patients increased with increasing concentrations of sulfate and vanadium in surface water.

August 2023: Cahill M, Jaworski M, Harcy V, et al. 2023. Cluster of Carbapenemase-Producing Carbapenem-Resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa Among Patients in an Adult Intensive Care Unit — Idaho, 2021–2022. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR) 72(31); 844–846. Highlights the importance of designing and maintaining hospital patient sinks to minimize Pseudomonas infections in patients.

June 2023: Swiderski D, Freije M. 2023. Water Management: Missed Opportunities to Promote Wellness, Save Energy and Protect Assets. Buildings. Water Management: Missed Opportunities to Promote Wellness, Save Energy and Protect Assets | Buildings.

January 2023: Joshi S, Richard R, Levya C, et al. 2023. Pinpointing drivers of widespread colonization of Legionella pneumophila in a green building: Roles of water softener system, expansion tank, and reduced occupancy. Frontiers in Water Volume 4. Highlights the importance of monitoring and having comprehensive Water Management Plans.

June 2022: “How Changes in Water Management Programs Could Present New Opportunities for Water TreatersThe Analyst.

March 2022: Variable Legionella Response to Building Occupancy Patterns and Precautionary Flushing. Microorganisms 10, 555

August 2021: Outbreak of Pseudomonas aeruginosa producing VIM carbapenemase in an intensive care unit and its termination by implementation of waterless patient care. Critical Care 25:301.

July 2017: “4 Ways to Cut Costs, Time and Risk in Water Management” McKnights Long-Term Care News (online)

January 2017: “6 Questions to Test Your Water Management PreparednessBuildings (online)

February 2016: “9 Ways to Avoid LegionellaBuildings (online)

June 2015: “Unprecedented Agreement About Legionella Prevention: What Safety Professionals Need to KnowThe Monitor (PDF)

June 2015: “What to know about ASHRAE 188PPM Engineer (online)

June 2015: “Legionella: Where the USA is AtPlumbing Connection, Australia (PDF)

May 2015: “Legionella, Your Customers, and ASHRAE 188PAir Conditioning, Heating, and Refrigerating News (online)

October 2014: “Hospital water and opportunities for infection prevention” Curr Infect Dis Rep (PDF)

October 2014: “A Look At ASHRAE’s Pending Legionella Standard 188PBuilding Operating Management (online)

October 2013: “The fine print: Legionella and water temperatures go hand-in-handPM Engineer (PDF)

October 2012: “Legionella: Don’t AssumeASHRAE Journal (PDF)

October 2012: “IH and Legionella: ASHRAE’s Pending Standard and Industrial Hygienists’ Potential RoleThe Synergist (American Industrial Hygiene Association, PDF)

October 2012: “Tipping the Legionella ScalesPM Engineer (PDF)

August 2012: “How to Protect Against LegionellaBuildings (online)

July 2012: “Legionella, HACCP, and ASHRAE’s Pending Standard 188” Air Conditioning, Heating, & Refrigeration News (online)

May 2012: “What’s Proposed in the Legionella StandardASHRAE Journal (PDF)

March 2010: “The Latest on LegionellaPM Engineer (online)

Sept. 2009: “Some Waterborne Bacteria are ToughWater Technology (online, page 26-27)

March 2009: “10 Ways Plumbing Engineers Can Prevent Legionnaires’ DiseasePM Engineer (online)

Aug. 2004: “A Management Plan for Legionella and Other Waterborne PathogensOccupational Hazards (online)

Jan. 2002: “Preventing Legionella in Home Plumbing SystemsPlumbing & Mechanical (online)

Jan. 2000: “Legionnaires’ disease: It has not gone awayAir Conditioning, Heating & Refrigerating News (online)